What is Kernel?

Kernel is the central part of an operating systems. It manages the operations of the computer. The hardware most notably memory and CPU time.The kernel is the most fundamental part of an operating system.

There are five types of kernels:

1.Monolithic Kernels.
2.Micro kernels.
3.Hybrid Kernels.
4.Nano Kernels.
5.Exo Kernels.

1.Monolithic kernel

The monolithic kernel is an operating system software framework. That is holds all privileges to access input and output devices memory hardware interrupts of the CPU stack. Monolithic kernels are liable to be larger than other kernels. Because they contract with so many aspects of computer processing at the lowest level. Therefore have to incorporate code that interface with many devices input and output.And interrupt channels and other hardware operates.

This figure of the kernel is the basis for Linux, Unix, MS-DOS and Mac OS. Newer operating systems typically use a hybrid kernel to allow for easier maintenance and operating system improvement.

2.Micro kernel :

The Micro kernel is one of the arrangements of the kernel.A creature a kernel it manages all system resources.
The micro kernel in the user services and kernel services are implemented in different address space.

Micro kernel Architecture :

While the kernel is the core part of the operating system so it is meant for handling the most important services only.
Therefore in this architecture, only the most important services are inside the kernel and rest of the OS services are present inside the system application program.
Therefore users are able to interact with those not so important services within the system application.
The micro kernel is only responsible for the most important services of the operating system they are named as given below:

Inter process Communication Memory Management CPU Scheduling

Advantages of Micro kernel as given below :

The architecture of this kernel is small and inaccessible hence it can function better.
The micro kernel is a piece of software or even code.That contains the near minimum amount of functions.And the features required to implement an Operating System.

3.Hybrid Kernel :

The kernel is the core part of the operating system as it manages the operations of the computer and the computer hardware.
Hybrid kernel attempts to unite the features and aspects of micro kernel and monolithic kernel.

At a distance from the managerial mode, the kernel mode contains the kernel mode drivers, the micro kernel and the hardware concept layer.

4.Nano kernel :

This kernel is a small kernel that offers hardware concept but without system services. Larger kernels are intended to offer more features and manage more hardware concept

5.What’s associate Exo kernel?

The ultimate plan behind the event of Exo kernel is to impose as few abstractions as doable on the developers. The applications by providing them with the liberty to use the abstractions as and once required. This ensures that there’s no forced abstraction, which is what makes exo kernel totally different from micro-kernels and monolithic kernels. But, however, will Exo kernel support this?

Expose allocation:

Applications allocate resources explicitly Expose name Exo kernels. It is use physical names wherever possible Expose revocation. Exo kernels let applications to choose which instance of a resource to give up. Expose information,Exo kernels expose all system information.They collect data that applications cannot easily derive locally.

Advantages of Exo kernels :

Significant performance increase.Applications can make more efficient. Intelligent use of hardware resources by being aware of resource availability, revocation, and allocation.Ease development and testing of new operating system ideas. New scheduling techniques, memory management methods, etc.

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